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Help improve your experience on DHgate. Even during his reign, Süleyman had already delegated many of his duties and powers to his Grand Vizier and boyhood friend, Ibrahim, and gradually withdrew from the actual governing of the Empire. Sultan s Selim II and Murad III spent more time in the harem than ever, the former drinking to his hearts content, and the latter, bedding concubines to his content.
The Sultan 's seclusion away from their governments greatly diminished their influence in the government. In varying degrees, the Valide Sultan and the Kadins began to influence the governing of the Ottoman State by having bribery and political patronage supplant promotion on the basis of merit.
Beginning with Murad III , the Valide Sultan Nurbanu introduced a string of virgins to him in hopes of begetting more than one male heir. Murad ended up fathering some twenty sons and twenty-seven daughters during his reign.
Although she may have begun with good intentions, that of having more than one surviving heir. However, Murad would become less attentive to political matters and increasingly dependent on his mother Nurbanu for political advice.
Murad's Bas Kadin Safiye maintained her dignity and status by not displaying any bitterness or jealousy over her replacements in Murad's bed. Later on, Safiye would even present beautiful virgins to Murad, a gesture that would earn her his gratitude, and allow her to manipulate him according to her desires. When Murad no longer occupied himself with his other concubines, he again turned to Safiye for companionship.
Among these were the lapse of the Princely Governate, the seclusion of male heirs into the Kafes , and the marked increase in harem women populations. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the population of the Seraglio harem ranged from a hundred to over a thousand women. The size fluctuated frequently since when the Sultan 's sons left the harem at the ages of fourteen to sixteen, they were given their servants from the harem to accompany them to the provinces in which they were given governship.
The princes received their harem of virgins who were either selected from the Sultan 's harem or purchased at the slave markets. These downward fluctuations were present until Selim allowed the imperial princes to survive but they were to be secluded in the Kafes. It consisted of a two-storied building without windows and intended to isolate the Princes and their harems of some two dozen sterile women.
In the instances where the princes lived to become Sultan , they were often unprepared to rule the Empire. After the ascension of Mehmed III, the princes were no longer given provincial governships and were instead secluded into the Kafes to prevent insurrection against the Sultan and hence, sparing their lives.
The seclusion of princes in the Kafes also meant that the harems that formerly accompanied the princes to their provincial capitals remained inside the Topkapi Palace harem and caused the overall harem population to continually increase. Rebellion was always possible once a prince was formally recognized as an adult, this being due to the fact that he was to assume governance over a province. Young princes in previous times had assumed popular roles with the Janissaries and the idea of a warrior prince or Sultan appealed to the Janissaries , so much insofar as Murad III seldom left the Palace for fear of being replaced by his more popular son Mehmed III.
The Valide Sultan Nurbanu and her daughter-in-law Safiye took active part in the governance of the empire. Safiye knew that "with the authority she enjoys as mother of the prince, she intervenes on occasion in affairs of state, although she is much respected in this, and is listened to by His Majesty, who considers her sensible and wise".
Safiye also attempted to influence important matters directly. On one noted occasion, Safiye was seated behind a curtain. During a discussion between the Sultan and the mufti Sunullah Efendi in , Safiye hastened to defend her son Mehmed. It became apparent that the Valide Sultan was listening. She hastened to support [the Sultan 's words] and said, "affairs of state have become excessively disordered, taxes imposed through harmful invention on the peasants of the empire have multiplied beyond bounds, and the whole world is becoming increasingly obsessed with pennies and pounds and taking bribes.
All is being corrupted because ignorant and base persons have taken control. A remedy must be applied to these ills". Safiye was able to influence her son to release much needed monies for the outfitting of the soldiers.
Safiye's sway on Mehmed also placed her in competition with other influential counselors of the Sultan , the Viziers , the mufti , the chief black eunuch, and the Sultan 's male and female favorites.
Safiye's interference in state politics and her attempts to promote her interests were not always received favorably with the Sultan Mehmed. Mehmed often had to restrain his mother because of her unpopularity with the soldiers and many statesmen. According to Ambassador Agnostino Nani, who lived in Istanbul from , Safiye's position was tenuous:. At one time she was taken away from the palace and sent to the Old Palace by her son, the present king, but a few days later she was brought back and restored.
She will succeed with difficulty in escaping being removed [again] at the petition of the soldiers, who want her sent to some faraway place, although they do not want to shed her blood. This might be accomplished by having her driven away to Edirne. They attribute many disorders to her, in particular the consumption of money for a most superb mosque she is having built; but she has halted its construction. Safiye's perceived excessive interference was a main cause of her unpopularity.
Most of her actions were documented and vilified only when she had overstepped the bounds of the role of the Valide Sultan. It was during this time and due to the avarice of the Sultan and the Valide Sultan Safiye and her supporters , that the coinages were being clipped and debased. The Sultan and his mothers' greed was not the only cause of coin clipping; as the size of the harem increased, the stipends and expenditures of the harem also increased. In order to maintain the harem lifestyle without overtly raising taxes , the coins were clipped.
The coinage debasement led to the Istanbul monetary riots of that were initiated by the Sipahis and then taken up by the general population. The clipping of coinage occurred again between and The sultana mother, with this vizier [Mere Hüseyin Pasha], finding it impossible to proud for the next pay by the ordinary entrata, he resolved to change the mint, and to remove it into the Seraglio; where they now give out all the saddles, bridles, bitts, stirrups, chains, and old plate of silver and gold that can be found, to make coin.
Thus they hope to patch up their quiet for a time. The demise of the princely governate during the reign of Mehmed III may have been partially due to his early death; he died just before the age his son Mahmud was to have been granted governance. Following Mehmed's death , there followed five reigns - those of Ahmed I, Osman II, Mustafa I, Murad IV , and Ibrahim, spanning from to , where no son of the reigning Sultan ever reached the traditional age where he would have been sent to the provinces.
Mehmed's death also marked the beginning of the seclusion of princes in the Kafes. The princes were kept in the Palace until they ascended to the throne. Prior to Suleyman 's marriage to Hürrem and her birthing of his children four sons and a daughter , the Ottomans followed a reproductive policy of which a woman would bear no more than one son to a Sultan or prince ; but she might bear many daughters before the birth of her son.
The combination of concubine slavery and the single-son policy served to limited both the possibilities of a young prince from seeking support from his maternal relatives if his mother was a daughter of a noble or influential rival neighbor. It also served to minimize the possibility of two princes fighting for the support of the mother. When Ahmed became Sultan , he did not kill his brother Mustafa, and instead kept him in the Kafes on alcohol and opium.
Ahmed's years of isolation with his brother in the Kafes left him with an insatiable need for continual diversion. He took a different concubine to bed each night, but favored the Greek beauty, Kösem. Kösem bore Ahmed three sons: Murad, Beyazid, and Ibrahim. Mustafa , ; Osman After Ahmed's death , the crazed Mustafa was released from the Kafes and Kösem's sons were imprisoned.
Mustafa was dethroned by the eunuch corps after a few months and his son Osman succeeded him. Osman was later killed in a Janissary and sipahis cavalry uprising. Mustafa was again released from the Kafes and enthroned. Murad's cruelty soon became apparent as he passed a law prohibiting drinking and smoking throughout the empire, while he abused both habits.
Kösem's hopes were set on Beyazid who was handsome, astute and brave. In a fit of jealousy, Murad ordered Beyazid's death at which Kösem was unable to intervene to save Beyazid. Murad himself died of terror after witnessing a solar eclipse , but not before ordering Ibrahim's death. Kösem intervened and Ibrahim was saved from death. By that time, Ibrahim was too terrified to leave the Kafes when hearing about his brother's death as he was convinced that his cruel brother was jesting to torment him.
He finally left the Kafes after Murad's corpse was shown to him. She had governance over the harem and through her influence with her son, governance of the Empire. Ibrahim was entirely absorbed with his harem and became obsessed with furs; wanting to touch, feel, and see furs everywhere in the harem. Later on, in a fit of madness, he ordered that his entire harem to be killed by putting them into sacks and drowned in the Bosphorus.
These obvious fits of madness provoked the janissaries to mutiny against him; and Kösem was forced to place Ibrahim back into the Kafes , where he was later killed by the order of the Mufti the spiritual head of the Moslem order. Kösem had no intention of relinquishing her power as Valide to Türkhan and sought to kill Mehmed so that she could elevate to the throne a young prince Suleyman II, whose mother Dilasub, Kösem felt had no desire to become involved in the politics of the time.
Kösem was supported by the janissaries , but the new Grand Vizier Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, and the rest of the palace administration favored Türkhan. Kösem conspired to admit the janissaries into the harem one night to kill the young Sultan and his mother. This plan backfired, as Türkhan had been informed of this conspiracy and Kösem found herself facing the eunuch corps, supporters of Türkhan. Kösem attempted to save herself but was caught by the eunuchs and killed.
Harem Populations After the change in law regarding the Kafes and the loss of provincial governorships for the Princes. The harem population dramatically increased as the princes and their harems remained inside the Seraglio Topkapi Palace harem. The population further increased during the reigns of Murad III , Ahmed I, and Ibrahim, as they spent more time in the bedchamber than ever. The increase in harem women populations is also correlated by the increase in expenditures.
During the reign of the Ibrahim r. This may have been due to the fact that Ibrahim was obsessed with furs and jewels. His desire to see furs everywhere in the harem greatly increased the harem expenditures as the price of furs would have gone up accordingly. This would also apply to the price of jewels too, as he sought jewels for the decoration of his beard. Although it is not recorded exactly how much the daily stipends were for all of the Sultan 's Kadin s and concubines, general figures were available indicating that the Valide Sultan continued to enjoy the role as most influential and powerful member of the dynastic family by having the highest stipend.
Nurbanu Sultan received a daily stipend of 2, aspers currency of the time , while her successor Safiye Sultan , received 3, aspers after the ascension of her son Mehmed III. In contrast, the highest stipends of leading public officials were: Even the Sultan himself only received a 1, aspers stipend.
After the Valide Sultan , the Kadin s were next in the harem hierarchy to enjoy great status. Their status was even higher than the Sultana 's Aunts and sisters of the current Sultan as they were accorded higher stipends. The Kadin 's higher status arose from the fact that she was the mother of the potential future Sultan. Murad III 's favorite Safiye kadin received stipend of aspers a day, while his sisters Ismihan and Geverhan Sultan s received and aspers a day, respectively.
Murad's aunt Mihrimah Sultan received the highest stipend aspers a day amongst all of the royal females descending from the previous Sultan. Non- haseki or non-favorite concubines tended to receive stipends that were greatly reduced from those of the haseki Kadins. This was demonstrated by the fact that at the end of Selim II 's reign, the haseki Nurbanu received 1, aspers a day, while Selim 's other consorts, each the mother of a son, received only 40 aspers.
As the Sultan s' attention turned away from government, many of the harem women were able to manipulate the Sultan into raising their stipends in order to be able to purchase many of their jewels and furs.
By the reign of Ibrahim , the role and stipend of the royal haseki had been diminished and instead the role and influence of the concubines had moderately increased as indicated by their stipends of 1, to 1, aspers.
Other odalisques in the harem that served as general servants received stipends ranging from aspers. Ibrahims' penchant for women correlates with the increase in harem population. As he increased his harem size, he required more furs and jewels and thus dipped further and further into the State treasuries in order to support his extravagant tastes. His many concubines and favorites also meant that an increase in stipends was necessary, as befitted their role in his pleasures.
The general increase in harem women population also meant that the total amount of stipends required increased. The growth of the harem population follows a roughly parallel pattern with the harem expenditures. The increased spending caused a strain on the state treasury as the Sultan was spending increasing amounts of time in the harem rather than leading the Janissaries on conquest of infidel lands. Other factors that led to the diminishing of state income were the lack of campaigning or Ghazi warfare on "infidels"- non- Muslim lands ; the overall inflation of the economy , and the increase in bribery and corruption of state officials.
Ghazi During the reigns of the first ten Sultan s up to and including the reign of Süleyman , the Sultan was seen to be taking an active role in the ever continuing expansion of the "Abode of Islam " but campaigning against the infidels as a Ghazi also taken to meaning "Warrior of Islam ".
Campaigning meant that the Janissary corps was not able to remain in the capital long enough to conspire and form intrigues. It also meant the conquering of new lands and people, which resulted in new riches for the armies, the state treasuries, new sources of slaves, and more taxes to be collected.
Monies capturing in the campaigns offset the cost of maintaining the mobile Janissaries. The gradual withdrawal of the Sultan into his harem also meant that the Janissaries were not led onto campaigns where they could capture new treasures for themselves. That many of the Janissaries were garrisoned in the capital meant those political intrigues between the harem and Janissary leaders could and did take place.
The number of depositions of Sultan s after the reign of Süleyman was an astonishing thirteen of the twenty-seven Sultan s that followed him. The depositions may have been caused by a combination of factors. Of central importance was that Sultan 's no longer established their right to rule by proving themselves victors over their brothers, thus more qualified to rule, or by being designated heir by their fathers. Many Sultan s of the sixteenth century were either children or else incompetent adults.
They could not or would not lead the army out to battle and thus could not develop an aura of invincibility or victory. The diminished role of the Sultan in the governing of the Empire can also be seen by his withdrawal away from public appearances. Fiscal Disorganization Much of the Ottoman state owed its existence as well as its continued prosperity and power to conquest.
It was a state committed to and organized for conquest. It was only through captured booty that the Ottoman state could afford to pay the Janissaries. The eventual halt of conquest also meant the difficulty of paying the troops would become increasingly obvious.
Any military campaigns that were being waged brought in less booty, and the Janissaries had to also compete with any mercenaries for their share of war profits. Constant fiscal problems of the time also led to the Janissaries being paid with debased coinage. The disorganization in the economy was not the sole reason for a Sultan 's deposition; a new Sultan 's ascension also meant a change in government policies.
The fiscal, military, and political confusion resulting from four accessions in the years between and and suffered again between and , as the Empire endured and recovered from the utter incompetence of the Sultan Ibrahim; rocked the State foundations. Political Instability The rapid change in the Sultan s also meant that the subsequent stability of the bureaucracy was threatened as top Ministers and Viziers were rapidly replaced. Instability of the government threw off the delicate balance that had previously existed between the palace bureaucracy and the harem institution.
Before the marriage of Süleyman to Hürrem , Ottoman tradition had held that no members of the dynastic family would be allowed into powers of position in the Inner Service palace bureaucracy.
Süleyman 's naming of Rüstem Pasha Süleyman 's son-in-law to the position of Grand Vizier , had set the precedent of the positioning of a powerful royal damad , the husband of a princess and son, or brother-in-law of the Sultan , as the Grand Vizier. The intrusion of damad into the palace governance meant that the influence of the Valide Sultan mother of the Sultan and her daughters could be voiced through the Grand Vizier.
The damad was dependent on the harem women for the maintenance of his position. It was a mutual relationship between the damad and the harem; without the damad as a Grand Vizier , the influence of harem women could only be voiced through the Valide Sultan to the Sultan ; and the damad gained political stability through his relationship to his mother-in-law the Valide Sultan.
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